The Ethereum 2.0 Upgrade

The Ethereum network is currently undergoing an upgrade known as Serenity that aims to make it more scalable and sustainable. This multi-phase upgrade features infrastructure modifications, including switching away from energy-intensive proof of work algorithms in favor of proof of stake algorithms (PoS) as well as sharding.

Ethereum 2.0 will facilitate staking on its network and expand blockchain capacity, and is due for release by September 2022 at the latest.

Proof of Stake

Ethereum 2.0’s most significant upgrade involves its shift away from an energy-intensive mining-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus mechanism and towards more nimble and efficient Proof-of-Stake (PoS). PoS allows validators who are selected based on economic incentives rather than anonymous competition to operate the network; this decentralization helps avoid 51% attacks common to PoW networks where malicious actors gain control of more than half the nodes and validate malicious transactions.

This change should make the blockchain more secure while simultaneously decreasing transaction fees and disk space requirements for running an Ethereum client. However, in order to participate in staking or other forms of economic activity on the network, an Ethereum wallet will still be necessary.

Proof of stake is still an emerging consensus mechanism, yet is expected to become increasingly popular as a method for protecting cryptocurrency transactions. It has fewer scalability problems than proof of work, can operate with lower power demand, and could serve as an environmentally-friendly alternative. Furthermore, its participation will enable everyday people to participate in protecting blockchains – providing greater accessibility and security overall in the blockchain industry.


Sharding is an integral element of Ethereum 2.0, increasing network capacity by breaking it into smaller parts called shards. Each shard will contain its own blockchain capable of processing transactions and executing smart contracts independently – saving gas by processing more transactions simultaneously on one blockchain while handling increased traffic levels without incurring large delays.

Sharding will significantly expand Ethereum network capacity, but is subject to potential issues, including state inconsistencies among shard islands. To combat this problem, ETH 2.0 introduces a shard intercommunication protocol which reduces cross-shard transactions and optimizes their efficiency by eliminating delays between transactions on different shards.

The Ethereum Sharding Solution will partition the network into 64 separate chains, each with its own state. This will allow each shard to process part of the total transactions on the network while also storing account balances and smart contract code from subset accounts on that shard chain. In order to avoid state inconsistencies between shard islands, ETH 2.0 will use Receipt Root Paradigm system which stores conditional states which remain optimistic of submitted transaction validity – updating state roots after each transaction and enabling token transmission between shard chains.

Smart Contracts

The Ethereum 2.0 Upgrade (also known as Eth2) represents a shift away from proof-of-work blockchain models towards proof-of-stake models that aims to reduce energy footprint and scalability issues, increase transaction capacity, and decrease transaction costs.

Upgrade has long been anticipated and its completion could help push Ethereum to mainstream awareness. Furthermore, this change may alter people’s conceptions of cryptocurrency; perhaps more people will use it beyond storing value.

Before recently, Ethereum’s blockchain was limited by technical issues like high gas fees and transaction times that made its overall utility less useful and made it difficult for some users to utilize its services. Ethereum 2.0 addresses these problems by making its services more accessible for everyone.

This upgrade will bring many changes, such as sharding and other upgrades that enhance security on the network, enabling staking – where ether can be locked away to earn interest over time – while also supporting new capabilities for staking, such as locking away funds for long-term gain.

Though these upgrades are still under development, they should be completed by 2024 and help Ethereum become the platform of choice for smart contract-based decentralized applications – this will drive up ETH prices while offering new users opportunities to join its ecosystem.


The Ethereum platform is a decentralized blockchain that facilitates many different applications ranging from smart contracts to lending platforms. Unfortunately, its network has had difficulty scaling due to high gas fees and slow transaction speeds; hence the goal of its 2.0 Upgrade to address such limitations and enhance overall functionality of this decentralized platform.

Beacon Chain, the initial phase of Ethereum 2.0 Upgrades, launched in December 2020 and allows ETH holders to stake their tokens for rewards – an energy-saving process which helps scale Ethereum network. The Merge, set to debut in September 2022, will introduce Sharding technology as well as other upgrades designed to make platform more efficient.

These changes will also alter miners’ rewards; instead of mining ETH for mining profits, staking efforts will now be rewarded through transaction fees instead. Nonetheless, this doesn’t signify that mining will end; rather it simply transitions into replacing current mining models over time.

Though Ethereum’s 2.0 upgrade is significant, its impact may not be beneficial to the wider crypto market. Many DeFi (decentralized finance) apps utilize ETH as their investment currency; their investors may worry that once the staking mechanism comes into place they won’t earn income anymore from these investments; additionally, transitioning to Ethereum 2.0 may incur higher transaction fees for certain users.