Central Bank Digital Currencies

Central banks are exploring CBDCs as a means of increasing payment efficiency. While reducing infrastructure costs, CBDCs may also promote greater financial inclusion while offering enhanced security and convenience for users.

But, despite these advantages, CBDCs still raise several concerns regarding their impact on privacy, free markets and cybersecurity; furthermore, evidence to date indicates they cannot yet replace cash as a viable form of payment.


Central bank digital currencies can enhance payment systems and financial inclusion if designed appropriately, including making payments faster and more secure as well as providing entry points into formal financial systems for financially excluded populations. However, it’s essential that any such benefits justify government intervention in what should otherwise be an industry-driven evolution of digital money and payments.

CBDCs have become popular because they reduce costs associated with cash handling – particularly in remote island economies where moving large sums is costly and inconvenient. Furthermore, CBDCs could help increase financial inclusion by providing people without bank accounts with a way of being paid and paying bills; furthermore they could lower maintenance requirements of complex financial systems as well as reduce cross-border transaction costs.

Wholesale CBDCs allow banks to exchange value directly, eliminating intermediaries. This could make wholesale payments, securities settlements and collateral transfers more efficient and less risky. Retail CBDCs serve more as digital versions of current currency that consumers can move between accounts to purchase goods online; their advantages include instant fund transfers compared with our current dispersed banking system where grocery store transactions often involve four institutions updating records before being completed – something our current dispersed banking system cannot accomplish easily.


Central banks have increased research on CBDCs due to technology platforms integrating digital private money into the US payments system. But challenges still need to be met, including taxability issues that arise with money becoming digital; also privacy risks may still exist for users as some users could try using them illicitly; although privacy shouldn’t be seen as an essential prerequisite of issuing CBDCs, it should still be an important consideration when issuing one.

CBDCs aim to increase payment efficiency and facilitate innovative consumer solutions while increasing financial inclusion, lowering transaction costs, and encouraging cross-border payments. Their success will depend on regulators ensuring they do not undermine competition, security or transparency.

CBDCs are designed to replace fiat currencies and will be supported by their issuing country’s government. Regulated like other monetary assets, they will act as stores of value, units of account and medium of exchange in everyday transactions; providing a safer and more convenient alternative than cash.

Though CBDCs offer many advantages, there remains significant debate as to whether the United States should issue one. Critics of CBDCs claim they would violate American principles regarding financial privacy, freedom and free markets while also creating more government oversight of digital currency leading to less consumer choice and innovation.


As nations rush to embrace the cryptocurrency revolution, nations are scrambling to develop central bank digital currencies (CBDC). The European Central Bank (ECB) already has an ECB pilot underway while China and India are already trialling their respective national yuans and India is planning its pilot CBDC pilots respectively. Overall, over 100 countries containing 98% of world population are now exploring CBDCs according to an Atlantic Council CBDC tracker.

Central banks’ motivations for creating CBDCs may differ, but some common objectives include: decreasing cash usage; encouraging financial inclusion among unbanked and underbanked; improving efficiency in payments; creating programmable money; and increasing transparency of monetary policy. Yet while CBDCs offer great potential advantages, many central banks remain wary; according to Josh Lipsky from Atlantic Council’s CBDC tracker: “Payments are critical components of society,” and must not become vulnerable to cyberattacks or be used illicitly for illegal activities.”

As CBDCs become more prevalent, new decision-making processes, change management skills and talent experienced in forging partnerships will likely be required to function successfully. Furthermore, technology must be capable of handling large transactions in real time (for instance the digital euro from ECB could potentially require handling tens of thousands of daily transactions); otherwise it could lead to systemic instability and ultimately decrease trust in its security.


As digital payments and e-commerce continue their rapid rise, with concerns over financial inclusion heightened by COVID-19 pandemic, ambitions to use foreign CBDCs for cross-border payments and central banks’ hopes to issue or explore their own version of centralized digital money increasing, central banks have increased efforts in creating their own versions of centralised digital money (CDM). At present, 87 countries either plan or are actively investigating CBDCs; efforts may accelerate further as technology platforms integrate private digital currencies into global payments system while International Monetary Fund releases a guidebook on developing CBDCs.

One primary motivation for countries to implement CBDCs is modernizing their payment infrastructure by increasing competition, resilience, and efficiency. Other motivations may include increasing financial inclusion, decreasing transaction costs, or streamlining monetary policy execution such as interest rate decisions through digital means.

CBDCs differ from cryptocurrencies by being tied to each nation’s currency, eliminating their volatility and thus not constituting credit risk for banks. Furthermore, they can be programmed automatically execute certain transactions if conditions are met – something only central banks have this capability of doing! For example, Australia is trialing one as part of their “innovative and value-added payments project”, providing an online alternative to traditional money transfers or digital currencies like Pound Sterling (GBP), Yuan Renminbi (RMB) and Euro.